Both Florinda by Maria Rosa Galvez, and El Eterno Femenino by Rosario Castellanos, are works of theater that focus greatly on the theme of female oppression. In this infographic, we compare this theme within the two works, and the relevance this theme still has today. While both works take place in a patriarchal society, and ultimately end with the unhappiness of their female protagonists, there are differences in the themes they portray. Florinda places focus on the oppression of women by her male counterparts, who abuse their powerful roles in society, and blame her for the crimes taken against her. El Eterno Femenino focuses more on internalized oppression, with stereotypical female roles, and pressures to be a perfect woman and perfect wife, oppress generations of women in society. These works were written more than 150 years apart, with the theme of the oppression of women still very prevalent. We even see this theme carried into the works of today, as women’s rights continue to be a problem in today’s society.
In humans, increased cortisol can lead to pathological increases in blood coagulation, in turn leading to thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli. Cortisol appears to promote coagulation by upregulating the transcription of coagulation factors, thereby increasing the likelihood of the coagulation cascade. It is possible that cortisol has a similar effect on clotting in zebrafish, via effects on transcription of coagulation factors. If so, this would support the use of zebrafish as a model organism for testing anti-coagulant medications. I hypothesized that cortisol induces transcriptional upregulation of genes encoding coagulation factors in zebrafish, as in humans. Additionally, that transcript levels of the coagulation factor genes will be higher in stressed females than stressed males. Male and female zebrafish (n=34) were exposed to acute stressors for 7 days, resulting in an unpredictable chronic stress environment. Additional males and females (n=34) were not exposed to the stress environment and were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the seven-day treatment, the fish were euthanized, and their livers transferred to TriReagent. The RNA from the livers was isolated and cDNA synthesized for qPCR. qPCR measured transcript levels of clotting factors X and VII. Mean (SE) Factor VII transcript levels of the control group (-0.211) were not significantly different from stressed groups (-0.367), nor in Factor X control group (-0.100) and stressed groups (-0.576) (p>0.05). Difference in transcript levels between each sex were also determined, with no significant difference in Factor VII control females (0.063), stressed females (-0.583), control males (-0.063), or stressed males (-0.004). No significant difference was found between transcript levels of Factor X control females (0.051), stressed females (-1.361), control males (0.1) or stressed males (0.122) (p>0.05). There is no evidence that increased cortisol causes differences in the transcription of genes coding for coagulation Factors VII or X.